Philosophers of the Arabs
Othman Amin (1905 – 1987), one of the leaders of the modern Islamic philosophical school founded by Al-Sheikh Mustafa Abulraziq, he is well known by his spiritual or subjective view of 'Internalism' (Al-Gowanya in Arabic)
Amin was born in a village in
this conservative environment Othman Amin has been
grown up and preserved part of Al-Qur'an by his father. He studied in
elementary and preparatory school near his village and studied in the secondary
During his study he met Al-Sheikh Mustafa Abdulraziq and under his supervision and direction he read parts of the writings of the major Islamic philosophers such as Ibn Rushd, Ibn Sina and Al-Farabi.
got the license in literature on 1930 afterwards he left to
In his work "excerpts from contemporary Arabic Literature", the well known Orientalist Jack Perk has reserved a space to acknowledge the philosophical works of Othman Amin. Whereas he was described by professor Ibrahim Bayoumi Madkour the president of the convention of the Arabic language as one of the builders of contemporary Arabic philosophy.
The philosophy of Internalism (Al-gowanya) is his own philosophy which he formulated and embraced after self contemplation and deep readings in philosophy books. It is a philosophy that sees peoples and things in a spiritual view, sees the inner reality not the outer appearance, searching for the internal after observing the external.
In his view such a philosophy represents a combinatory view between subject and object, between reason and heart and between metaphysics and science. It also calls in thought and behavior for pure and ethical intentions, the equality between the hidden and the announced, and giving up hypocrisy, in short it calls for a truly ethical live in which the human being is true with himself and free from alienation.
'Al-Gowanya' in his view is a revolutionary philosophy that aims basically to fulfill two goals in the development of our history: first to review our heritage and reassess it, second, move forward toward the future and prepare for it. He also believes that his philosophy is in no contradiction with mind or science, but it accompanies them and exceeds them toward the mystical experience to uncover what they can not reach. Hence his philosophy is close to religion and in his specific case has emanated also from contemplation of the verses of Al-Qur'an and the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad.
Othman Amin has expressed his philosophy in a book titled with the same name 'Al-Gowanya' in which he made application of it in different fields such as philosophy of language and Islamic ethics.
His scientific and philosophical research was abundant and divers, among his most important works:
· Muhammad Abduh the leader of the Arabic Thought
· The Stoic Philosophy
· Islamic Sects and Personalities
· Philosophical Endeavors
· Leaders of the human consciousness in the Islamic east
· "Contemplations in first philosophy", Rene Descartes
· "Principles of philosophy", Rene Descartes
· "the Future of humanity", Karl Jaspers
· "in Philosophy and Poetry", Martin Heidegger
In addition, he participated in
editing of four chapters of 'the Islamic encyclopedia' printed in